The redback is one of the few spider species that can be seriously harmful to humans, and its preferred habitat has led it to being responsible for the large majority of serious spider bites in Australia. Predominantly neurotoxic to vertebrates, the venom gives rise to the syndrome of latrodectism in humans: this starts with pain around the bite site, which typically becomes severe and progresses up the bitten limb and persists for over 24 hours. Sweating in localised patches of skin occasionally occurs and is highly indicative of latrodectism. Generalised symptoms of nausea, vomiting, headache, and agitation may also occur and indicate severe poisoning. An anti-venom has been available since 1956, and there have been no deaths directly due to redback bites since its introduction.
Red back spider
German cockroaches produce odorous secretions that can affect the flavor of various foods. When cockroach populations are high, these secretions may result in a characteristic odor in the general region of the infestation. Disease-producing organisms such as bacteria, protozoans and viruses have been found on cockroach bodies.
Different forms of gastroenteritis (food poisoning, dysentery, diarrhea, and other illnesses) appear to be the principal diseases transmitted by German cockroaches. The organisms causing these diseases are carried on the legs and bodies of cockroaches and are deposited on food and utensils as the cockroaches forage. Cockroach excrement and cast skins also contain a number of allergens to which many people exhibit allergic responses, such as skin rashes, watery eyes and sneezing, congestion of nasal passages and asthma.
Silverfish can live for two to three years, or more, and produce more than 50 offspring. Eggs, deposited one to three at a time, take from 19 to 43 days to hatch (temperature dependent); these offspring can reach sexual maturity in a few months or up to 3 years. This variability is due to environmental conditions and quality of food sources. Firebrat have similar lives, but they can produce more than 100 offspring, and eggs are deposited in batches of about 50.
Little is known about bristletail behavior. Most behavioral studies examined food preference or food suitability. Although most people think that bristletails feed on book bindings and carbohydrates, they actually prefer dried beef, beef extract, dead insects, and other items high in protein. Silverfish cannibalize dead and injured insects. They can survive for weeks without food and water, and more than 300 days if water is available. Both firebrats and silverfish prefer high humidity, although firebrats are more resistant to dryer environments. Silverfish desire cooler temperatures and are usually found in basements. Firebrats prefer warmer temperatures (over 32 Degrees) and are often near furnaces, hot water pipes, attics, and roofing shingles.
Odorous house ants can develop extremely large colonies but tend to maintain colonies of only several thousand workers with many queens. Winged reproductives appear in May through July. Workers are very active and move rapidly in single files. They mostly prefer sweets but will also feed on dead insects and grease. Nests are typically found outside under rocks, boards and the like, but can also nest within structures. Colonies are from hundreds to many thousands of individuals in size.
Odorous house ants will nest indoors near sources of moisture and warmth, in voids, but also in termite-damaged wood. Their ability to feed on many types of food brings them into conflict with us when they contaminate stored products in the pantry.
The odorous house ant is native to most of Australia. These ants feed on many different items including most items found in homes but apparently prefer to feed on those high in sugars.
Control of foraging odorous house ant workers can be accomplished through the use of baits. The workers carry the baited material back to the nest, eliminating the colony.
Black House Ant
A bed bug can individually and collectively cause a number of health effects including skin rashes, psychological effects and allergic symptoms. Bed bug bites or cimicosis may lead to a range of skin manifestations from no visible effects to prominent blisters. Diagnosis involves both finding bed bugs and the occurrence of compatible symptoms. Treatment involves the elimination of the insect but is otherwise symptomatic.
Because infestation of human habitats has been on the increase in developed countries, bed bug bites and related conditions have been on the rise as well, since the 1980s–1990s. The exact causes of this resurgence remain unclear; it is variously ascribed to greater foreign travel, more frequent exchange of second-hand furnishings among homes, a greater focus on control of other pests resulting in neglect of bed bug countermeasures, and increasing resistance to pesticides. Bed bugs have been known human parasites for thousands of years.
Once the flea reaches adulthood, its primary goal is to find blood and then to reproduce. Its total life span can be as short as one year, but may be several years in ideal conditions. Female fleas can lay 5000 or more eggs over their life, allowing for phenomenal growth rates. Average 30–90 days.
A flea might live a year and a half under ideal conditions. These include the right temperature, food supply, and humidity. Generally speaking, an adult flea only lives for 2 or 3 months. Without a host for food a flea's life might be as short as a few days. With ample food supply, the adult flea will often live up to 100 days.
Newly emerged adult fleas live only about one week if a blood meal is not obtained. However, completely developed adult fleas can live for several months without eating, as long as they do not emerge from their puparia. Optimum temperatures for the flea's life cycle are 21 °C to 30 °C.
Wasps can also be confused with bees, in particular Honey Bees - however these vary in colour from golden brown to almost black and are furrier than wasps.
Only female wasps have a sting which they can use repeatedly, if they feel under threat. In most cases a wasp sting causes no long term harm, but it can be life threatening if you are allergic to stings. Treating a wasp nest is often the most efficient way to control a wasp problem and reduce the threat of stings.
Wasps can build nests outdoors under eaves or, if they can gain access, they can find sheltered areas inside your home, such as wall cavities, roof spaces and attics. If a nest is discovered you shouldn’t attempt to get rid of it yourself.
Honeybees often break away from the commercial hives and establish themselves in areas, which cause danger and concern to man.
Treatment may be required where bees cannot be
removed in places such as cavity walls.
They live in hollow trees or in chimneys, wall cavities or roof spaces.
They are similar in size to wasps but are furrier and mostly black in colour.
Honey bees convert nectar into honey and beeswax.
A honey bee swarm will arrive in flight and cluster on a tree branch.
A colony size can often be greater than 30,000 individual honey bees.
Populations are under threat from the varroa mite.
Horse flies inflict one of the fiercest bites of any fly species. Unlike the often nearly painless bite of the mosquito, horse flies are equipped with scissor-like mandibles that tear flesh. While male horse flies feed on pollen and are pollinators, females feed on blood in order to assist in egg development.
The peak of horse fly season coincides with warm weather, and these flies are most active in summer and early fall. They prefer wet areas, congregating most commonly near the shores of lakes and at beaches. Horse flies are attracted to dark objects and use their complex, compound eyes to locate prey. Horse flies appear to be attracted to certain odors, as well as to carbon dioxide. Female horse flies lay eggs on rocks and plants near water. Larvae then prey on invertebrates such as snails and grubs, which they find by burrowing into the soil.
House flies are recognized as carriers of easily communicable diseases. Flies collect pathogens on their legs and mouths when females lay eggs on decomposing organic matter such as feces, garbage and animal corpses.
House flies carry diseases on their legs and the small hairs that cover their bodies. It takes only a matter of seconds for them to transfer these pathogens to food or touched surfaces. Mature house flies also use saliva to liquefy solid food before feeding on it. During this process, they transfer the pathogens first collected by landing on offal.
Diseases carried by house flies include typhoid, cholera and dysentery. Other diseases carried by house flies include salmonella, anthrax and tuberculosis. House flies have also been known to transmit the eggs of parasitic worms.
They are destructive pests and serious safety hazards.
They start fires by gnawing on electric cables. The next time you hear the phrase "fire of unknown origin," think about rats and mice.
They eat large amounts of food, and they contaminate even more with their urine, faeces, and hair. At least 20 percent of the world's food is eaten or contaminated by rats and mice each year. Food spoilage is a big issue.
They damage structures, books, furniture, even appliances, through gnawing and burrowing.
Worse, they spread disease to humans and other animals through their bite, by transporting fleas, lice, mites and ticks, and by leaving their droppings in food and other materials that humans contact. Rodents are vectors for bubonic plague, rat bite fever, leptospirosis, Hantavirus, trichinosis, infectious jaundice, rat mite dermatitis, salmonellosis, pulmonary fever, and typhus. Mice have also been linked to asthma.
As gnawing and burrowing animals, rodents inflict serious damage to our structures, equipment, furniture, utilities and transportation vehicles
A wily, curious creature, the house mouse is the most common of home-invading mice. Cute, perhaps, in a cage in the pet store, but not so cute when it decides to make your house its home.
A mouse in your house is, in fact, more than just an unwanted pest, it can also be a health threat to all who live there.
Unfortunately, because mice are small, nocturnal, and nest in out-of-the-way places, you may not even know you have a problem until it becomes a major problem.
Worldwide, mice spread over 35 diseases. These diseases can be spread to humans directly, through handling of rodents, through contact with rodent feces, urine, or saliva, or through rodent bites. Diseases carried by rodents can also be spread to humans indirectly, through ticks, mites or fleas that have fed on an infected rodent."
A few of these that can be carried or transmitted by mice are: Rabies .simonela, and Pulmonary Syndrome.